Adjudication (Recommendations)

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Agencies conduct thousands of adjudicative hearings every day, but the format of the hearing, whether face-to-face or by video, has not been analyzed in any systematic way.  Some agencies have provided hearings by video teleconferencing technology (VTC) for decades and have robust VTC programs.  These programs strive consistently to provide the best hearing experience, even as technology...

Federal administrative agencies enforce many statutory provisions and administrative regulations for violation of which fixed or variable civil money penalties may be imposed.[1] During Fiscal 1971, seven executive departments and thirteen independent agencies collected well in excess of $10 million, in over 15,000 cases; all evidence points to a doubling...

In the wake of the recent crises in the banking industry, Congress has passed two major statutes affecting the relationship among the four principal banking regulators (the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Office of Thrift Supervision) and the industries they supervise....

The U.S. Board of Parole consists of eight members and employs a staff of eight examiners. It conducts about 17,000 proceedings a year relating to the grant or denial of parole, involving about 12,000 prison interviews, and close to 2,000 proceedings relating to the revocation or continuation of parole. The Board controls approximately two-thirds of the time actually served under fixed-term...

The Re-registration Process

The re-registration of existing pesticides under contemporary risk assessment standards, and the removal of unacceptable pesticides from the marketplace, are examples where procedures can hinder the agency’s...

Cease-and-desist orders issued by administrative agencies and injunctions obtained by administrative agencies from the federal courts in the enforcement of regulatory statutes have generally been permanent in duration. As a result of this practice, many orders and injunctions now outstanding are decades old. Such outstanding orders and injunctions may serve no useful purpose and often cause...

Since the early 1990s, video teleconferencing technology (“VTC”) has been explored by various entities in the public and private sectors for its potential use in administrative hearings and other adjudicatory proceedings.[1]  In the last 10 years, advances in technology and carrier services coupled with reduced personnel and...

Individuals and citizen organizations, often representing those without a direct economic or personal stake in the outcome, are increasingly seeking to participate in administrative hearings. Their concern is to protect interests and present views not otherwise adequately represented in the proceedings. Agencies are exposed to the views of their staffs, whose positions...

This recommendation is addressed to the organizational structures which agencies establish to review decisions of presiding officers (ordinarily, administrative law judges) in proceedings governed by sections 556 and 557 of the Administrative Procedure Act or otherwise involving agency determinations on the record after opportunity for a hearing. It is based on a study of structures now in use...

Section 245 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1255 (1970), provides that an alien who meets all requirements for admission as an immigrant may have his status adjusted “by the Attorney General, in his discretion and under such regulations as he may prescribe, to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.”

The Immigration and Naturalization Service last...

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