Curtis W. Copeland, PhD, was formely a specialist in American government at the Congressional Research Service (CRS) within the U.S. Library of Congress. His primary area of expertise is federal rulemaking and regulatory policy. Before coming to CRS in January 2004, Dr. Copeland worked at the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO, now the Government Accountability Office) for 23 years on a variety of issues, including federal personnel policy, pay equity, ethics, procurement policy, management reform, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and, since the mid-1990s, multiple aspects of the federal rulemaking process. At CRS, he wrote reports and testified before Congress on such issues as federal rulemaking, regulatory reform, the Congressional Review Act, negotiated rulemaking, the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Flexibility Act, OMB’s Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Executive Order 13422, midnight rulemaking, peer review, and risk assessment. He has also written and testified on federal personnel policies, the federal workforce, GAO’s pay-for-performance system, and efforts to oversee the implementation of the Troubled Asset Relief Program. From 2004 until 2007, Dr. Copeland headed the Executive Branch Operations section within CRS’s Government and Finance Division. Copeland received his PhD degree in political science from the University of North Texas.