Congress (Recommendations)

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The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and discovery provide separate mechanisms for obtaining the disclosure of Government documents. Any person may invoke at any time the release provisions of the FOIA by requesting an agency to disclose any reasonably described agency records. A requester’s need for the records and his purpose in making the...

In late 1987, Congress enacted an administrative civil money penalty program for violations of the Federal Aviation Act and its implementing safety regulations. The Civil Penalty Assessment Demonstration Program, a 2-year temporary program, was originally due to expire December 31, 1989. It was extended for 4 months in anticipation of the completion...

This recommendation states criteria for use by the Congress in determining the appropriate forum for judicial review of federal administrative action.

The present forum for the review of most agency actions taken on formal evidentiary records is the court of appeals under specific statutory provisions. There are some exceptions. An important one...

Major industrial development projects often have significant environmental effects and require permit approvals and preparation of environmental reviews by agencies under legislation such as the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Clean Air Act. Although governmental permitting and review processes...

The ombudsman1 is an institution frequently used in other countries, and increasingly used in this country, as a means of inquiring into citizen grievances about administrative acts or failures to act and, in suitable cases, to criticize or to make recommendations...

Although largely unknown to lawyers outside the West, the Department of the Interior’s disposition of mining claims on public lands is a significant field of Federal administrative activity and an important element in planning rational use of the public lands.

The procedures for establishing or “locating” mining claims are set out by the General...

States have the power to regulate many forms of conduct. Each state must have broad power to regulate in ways that it believes to be in the best interests of its citizens, subject to the limitations stated in the federal and state constitutions. The nature and magnitude of the problems that require regulatory action vary substantially among the...

The routine sharing of information between congressional committees and administrative agencies constitutes one of the most important interactions between the political branches of our national government. The process of exchanging information affects the ability of the executive and legislative branches to carry out their constitutionally assigned...

The basic principle of the rulemaking provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act—that an opportunity for public participation fosters the fair and informed exercise of rulemaking authority—is undercut by various categorical exemptions in 5 U.S.C. § 553(a). More than 25 years’ experience with rulemaking under the APA has shown some of these broad exemptions to be neither...

In the Federal Tort Claims Act and dozens of other statutes,1 Congress has authorized agencies to provide compensation for losses occasioned by a variety of agency actions. The FTCA, the centerpiece of this array, essentially waives the government’s sovereign immunity to...

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