Congress (Recommendations)

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The basic principle of the rulemaking provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act—that an opportunity for public participation fosters the fair and informed exercise of rulemaking authority—is undercut by various categorical exemptions in 5 U.S.C. § 553(a). More than 25 years’ experience with rulemaking under the APA has shown some of these broad exemptions to be neither...

States have the power to regulate many forms of conduct. Each state must have broad power to regulate in ways that it believes to be in the best interests of its citizens, subject to the limitations stated in the federal and state constitutions. The nature and magnitude of the problems that require regulatory action vary substantially among the...

The routine sharing of information between congressional committees and administrative agencies constitutes one of the most important interactions between the political branches of our national government. The process of exchanging information affects the ability of the executive and legislative branches to carry out their constitutionally assigned...

The Magnuson-Moss Warranty—Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act, P.L. 93-637, which became effective January 5, 1975, provides authority and procedures for the Federal Trade Commission’s promulgation of “trade regulation rules.” The statute requires the Commission to engage in “hybrid” rulemaking, a style which adds to the notice-and-comment requirements for “informal...

Section 10(b)(3) of the Military Selective Service Act, 50 U.S.C. App. § 460(b)(3) (1970), in terms forbids judicial review of administrative determinations relating to the classification and processing of Selective Service registrants, except as incident to criminal prosecutions. In fact, the writ of habeas corpus is available to a registrant who submits to induction and...

In the Federal Tort Claims Act and dozens of other statutes,1 Congress has authorized agencies to provide compensation for losses occasioned by a variety of agency actions. The FTCA, the centerpiece of this array, essentially waives the government’s sovereign immunity to...

The Magnuson-Moss Warranty—Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act of 1975, Pub. L. 93-637, established special procedures for the adoption of trade regulation rules by the Federal Trade Commission. The Act also created a program for the reimbursement of the expenses of participants in trade regulation rulemaking who qualify for funding under criteria set forth in that...

The Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. § 553 (1970), provides simple, flexible and efficient procedure for rulemaking, including publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, opportunity for submission of written comments, and opportunity in the discretion of the agency for oral presentation. This notice-and-comment rulemaking procedure is...

Cost/benefit analysis1 may ordinarily be applied by an agency to a regulatory action, except when Congress has forbidden its use or has specified, in the authorizing legislation, the precise regulatory outcome Congress desired. Any legislative directive short of complete specificity...

Since 1981, Congress has almost annually made a large number of changes in the Medicaid program. Of primary concern is that Congress, in annual budget legislation (often in the last days of a session), has either made the expansion of benefits effective regardless of whether or not HCFA promulgates implementing regulations or other guidance by a...

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